Gibberellins - Hormone Synthetic Pathways and Genes in Arabidopsis

Gibberellins (GAs)

Gibberellins are a group of growth hormones that control such diverse processes as seed germination, stem elongation, leaf expansion and flower and fruit development. Gibberellins are defined on the basis of chemical structures, so they include not only bioactive hormones (such as GA1 and GA4) but also their biosynthetic precursors and inactivated forms. Gibberellins are named GA1...GAx in order of their discovery. Gibberellins are diterpenoid compounds biosynthesized from geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP), a common C20 terpenoid precursor. The major gibberellin biosynthesis pathway from GGDP in Arabidopsis is shown here.

Pathway map of Gibberellin biosynthesis
[MS PowerPoint: 327KB]

Genes on the pathway

Gene name Locus name Description
AtCPS/GA1 At4g02780 ent-copalyl diphosphate synthase
AtKS/GA2 At1g79460 ent-kaurene synthase
AtKO/GA3 At5g25900 ent-kaurenoic oxidase/CYP701A3
AtKAO1 At1g05160 ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase/CYP88A3
AtKAO2 At2g32440 ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase/CYP88A4
AtGA20ox1/GA5 At4g25420 GA 20-oxidase
AtGA20ox2 At5g51810 GA 20-oxidase
AtGA20ox3 At5g07200 GA 20-oxidase
AtGA20ox4 At1g60980 GA 20-oxidase
AtGA20ox5 At1g44090 GA 20-oxidase
AtGA3ox1/GA4 At1g15550 GA 3-oxidase
AtGA3ox2 At1g80340 GA 3-oxidase
AtGA3ox3 At4g21690 GA 3-oxidase
AtGA3ox4 At1g80330 GA 3-oxidase
AtGA2ox1 At1g78440 GA 2-oxidase (class I)
AtGA2ox2 At1g30040 GA 2-oxidase (class I)
AtGA2ox3 At2g34555 GA 2-oxidase (class I)
AtGA2ox4 At1g47990 GA 2-oxidase (class II)
AtGA2ox5 pseudogene
AtGA2ox6 At1g02400 GA 2-oxidase (class II)
AtGA2ox7 At1g50960 GA 2-oxidase (class III)
AtGA2ox8 At4g21200 GA 2-oxidase (class III)
GAMT1 At4g26420 GA methyltransferase
GAMT2 At5g56300 GA methyltransferase
RIKEN Plant Hormone Research Network - RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science